PSY 575 Topic 8 Discussion Question 2
Single-loop learning is about finding the best way to do something, such as the most efficient training program. This works well for simple systems that don’t need to adapt quickly. Double-loop learning is about problem solving with a view to changing the system itself, so that we can make a better effort than last time. This could lead to changes in spending or management structure, or a shift in management culture. Both of these techniques can be put to use in organizational settings.
If the goal of corporate training is to modify individual behavior, then single-loop learning would be appropriate (normally). Double-loop learning is more useful in situations where there is a need to modify organizational systems, structures, or relationships.
The basic concept of single-loop and double-loop learning refers to the extent to which problem solving is used. In the case of single-loop learning, individuals might use problem solving techniques within their particular area of expertise. Situations that require additional knowledge from outside domains will be less well suited for single-loop learning to occur. In contrast, in cases involving double-loop learning, individuals are called upon to resolve situations that require knowledge beyond their own expertise. Greater cognitive skills and analysis are needed as they seek out other information sources to make determinations about what information and factors need to be considered. Those with a greater background and expertise in one area are typically better suited for single-loop learning while those with more breadth of knowledge and interest in multiple disciplines are often better suited for engaging in the process of double-loop learning
Single-loop learning corrects errors, whereas double-loop learning corrects the process by which objectives are set. Single-loop learning is best for implementing assessments such as skill-based evaluations, whereas double-loop learning is best for achieving objectives such as strategic and group goals.
Single-loop learning … occurs when a new behavior or response takes place. The emphasis on the experience is on how the activities are carried out and not necessarily on the outcome. Double-loop learning … refers to changing processes, procedures, and practices so that better outcomes will be achieved.
single loop learning can be adapted regardless of the outcome. double-loop learning can change the way an individual works and provide a better way to solve a problem no matter the size.
Single-loop learning allows an organization to redo or adjust a process or strategy without having to revisit the underlying assumptions about how it works. Double-loop learning is necessary when you want to question the underlying assumptions about why your original strategy/approach is not working, and you need to make adjustments at the foundational level of the process
Single loop learning is often used to improve operational efficiencies or production flaws. In contrast to double loop learning that seeks to understand the underlying issues and systemic problems, single loop learning is focused on a specific issue, problem or discrepancy (Darr, 2001).
Single-loop learning means creating and using a generic formula to solve problems. If that formula doesn’t yield the expected or desired results, it needs to be tweaked. Double-loop learning requires the decision-maker to change his or her approach, rather than just tweak the solution, and thus take into account more information.
Double-loop learning is often associated with a learning community in which students and teachers work closely together to maximize the learning outcome, with students playing an active role in the development of their skills. Examples include hands-on laboratory exercises and opportunities to articulate what has been learned through oral or written presentations.
reflective learning and non-reflective learning
Contrast single-loop learning from double-loop learning. Give examples specific to organizational training and evaluation practices in which each would be effective.