PICOT Question

PICOT Question:

A patient of age 40 years is diagnosed with some lung problems and admitted to hospital. How effective will be the strategy of cessation of smoking for the period of two months to overcome the lung problems as compared to chemotherapy and inhalers.


Patient with age of 4o years admitted to hospital.

According to the American Cancer Society, roughly 235,760 new cases of lung cancer are diagnosed each year, with males accounting for 119,100 new cases and women accounting for 116,660 new cases. Furthermore, lung cancer claims the lives of approximately 131,880 people, with 69,410 men and 62,470 women (Lung Cancer Statistics, n.d.). According to the American Cancer Society’s study, lung cancer is by far the most common cause of cancer mortality, accounting for 25% of all cancer fatalities (Lunger Cancer Statistics, n.d.). Lung cancer is a long-term illness that involves the development of malignant cells in the lungs.


Cessation of smoking.

Continuous research and technological developments have enabled researchers to conduct investigations that have led to clinical trials. Many research and clinical trials have been conducted in order to determine the most prevalent cause of lung cancer in patients, as well as the success of smoking cessation. According to one research, there is a compelling case for delivering smoking cessation therapies to patients who smoke and are being screened for lung cancer (Joseph. A, 2018). Not to add that successful smoking cessation programmes may help to lower cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity rates (Joseph. A, 2018). Another research found that smoking increases the risk of lung cancer and other lung problems (Lederer. D, 2009).


Chemotherapy and Inhalers

Though smoking cessation therapies have been shown to improve quality of life and reduce the morbidity and death rates associated with lung cancer, it is important to remember that such interventions are prohibitively costly. However, evidence shows that a smoking cessation intervention enhances ACERS, making its inclusion in any screening program a strong recommendation (Goffin. J, 2016).


Prevention of complications due to smoking

In a clinical examination of smokers in NSLT, 70 percent pondered quitting, 13 percent were ready to stop, and 13 percent had no intention of quitting, according to research (Joseph. A, 2018). While participating in the New York Early Cancer Action Project, 32% were serious about stopping in 30 days and 47% were thinking about quitting in six months (Joseph. A, 2018). The American Thoracic Society and the American College of Chest Physicians have issued a set of guidelines to help build successful lung cancer screening methods in terms of personnel and preparation for smoking cessation interventions (Joseph. A, 2018). On-site clinical professionals, as well as radiologists, are used to conduct smoking cessation therapy. On-site personnel, on the other hand, vary in terms of training and comfort in administering smoking cessation therapy (Joseph. A, 2018).


Two months period

Smoking cessation therapies are administered via psychological and behavioural approaches, with the former requiring no medication and the latter requiring it. Nurses are crucial in influencing a patient’s desire to stop smoking. Nurses serve as a connection between the patient and the smoking cessation intervention because they are encouraged to speak with their patients about quitting smoking. Furthermore, they must be appropriately trained in order to give patients with viable choices as well as enrolling them in the right smoking cessation programme (Carlebach. S, 2009). Overall, nurses are or should be motivated by the desire to help their patients improve and maintain their health habits, as well as the urge to engage in preventive care. Smoking cessation nurses will be able to integrate evidence-based strategies in their practises, improving patient health and lowering lung cancer-related mortality.


Lung Cancer Statistics: How Common is Lung Cancer? American Cancer Society. (n.d.). https://www.cancer.org/cancer/lung-cancer/about/key-statistics.html#:~:text=Lung

Nakao, K. (2012). Smoking history and underlying lung disease are associated with poor outcome in patients developing interstitial pneumonia during low-dose amiodarone therapy. Journal of Arrhythmia, 29(1), 5–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joa.2012.04.005

Joseph, A., Rothman, A., Almirall, D., Begnaud, A., Chiles, C., Cinciripini, P., Fu, S., Graham, A., Lindgren, B., Melzer, A., Ostroff, J., Seaman, E., Taylor, K., Toll, B., Zeliadt, S., & Vock, D. (2018). Lung Cancer Screening and Smoking Cessation Clinical Trials SCALE (Smoking Cessation within the Context of Lung Cancer Screening) Collaboration. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 197(2), 172– 182. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201705-0909CI

Lederer, D., Enright, P., Kawut, S., Hoffman, E., Hunninghake, G., van Beek, E., Austin, J., Jiang, R., Lovasi, G., & Barr, R. (2009). Cigarette Smoking Is Associated with Subclinical Parenchymal Lung Disease: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)-Lung Study. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 180(5), 407–414. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.200812-1966OC

Goffin, J., Flanagan, W., Miller, A., Fitzgerald, N., Memon, S., Wolfson, M., & Evans, W. (2016). Biennial lung cancer screening in Canada with smoking cessation—outcomes and cost-effectiveness. Lung Cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 101, 98–103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2016.09.013

Carlebach, S., & Hamilton, S. (2009). Understanding the nurse’s role in smoking cessation. British Journal of Nursing, 18(11), 672-676.

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