Discussion: Explaining Types of Contingencies

Discussion: Explaining Types of Contingencies

Discussion: Explaining Types of Contingencies

Question Description
I’m working on a Business question and need guidance to help me study.

Replies should be 260 words each, add value to the discussion and include at least one direct question.

STUDENT 1 (David):

Before explaining the various types of contingencies, it is important to understand what a contingency operation is and how it is defined. According to the FAR 2.101, a contingency operation is designated by the Secretary of Defense in which members of the armed forces become involved in military actions, operations, or hostilities against the enemy of the U.S. or against an opposing military force (DPAP, 2015).

Furthermore, it should be noted that not all contingency operations are alike. Contingency Contracting Officers (CCO) need to be familiar with the emergency acquisition flexibilities in FAR part 18 and DFAS 218 (DPAP, 2015). However, the main elements that a CCO may face in the overall contingency contracting environment will be similar, and that is the level of urgency needed for certain requirements, the possibility of austere or limited business infrastructure and the likely differences in culture and ethical practices (DPAP, 2015).

When it comes to contingency contracting there are several types: declared contingency, major operations and campaigns, smaller-scale contingency operations, humanitarian or peacekeeping operations, domestic disaster or emergency relief, and lastly military exercises (DPAP, 2015). Declared contingencies are examples of when a formal declaration of a contingency operation has been made. A declaration is important because it triggers an increase in the micro-purchasing threshold and the threshold limits authorized for use in test programs may also be increased (DPAP, 2015). Major operations and campaigns are instances when conflicts or hostilities are ongoing, imminent, or likely and therefore is a substantial commitment of U.S. military forces (DPAP, 2015). During such operations, contracting usually supplements robust combat support and combat service support infrastructures.

Smaller-scale contingency operations are similar to major operations, only they involve fewer places and usually a more restricted time schedule. Contracting often supplements combat support and combat service support capabilities that are limited by the location, strategic lift, or staffing ceilings (DPAP, 2015).

Contingency contracting may also support humanitarian or peacekeeping operations, defined as a military operation in support of the provision of humanitarian or foreign disaster assistance or in support of a peacekeeping operation under Chapter VI or VII of the Charter of the United Nations (DPAP, 2015).

Domestic disaster and emergency relief operations can range from domestic natural and human-made disasters to civil disturbances or terrorist incidents in the United States. DoD disaster relief missions include efforts to mitigate the results of natural or human-made disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, oil spills, riots, and air, rail, or highway accidents (DPAP, 2015).

Lastly, routine military exercises can be anything but routine for the CCO supporting them. With any large training environment there is an associated sense of urgency, pressure, or risk to life or national interest. Furthermore, most exercises do not qualify as declared contingencies or emergencies, therefore they generally receive no special consideration, flexibilities, or relief (DPAP, 2015).


DPAP. (2015). Defense Contingency Contracting Handbook. Retrieved from https://www.acq.osd.mil/dpap/ccap/cc/jcchb/Final%20DCCH-V5_6-12-15.pdf

STUDENT 2 (Jena):

In accordance with FAR 2.101, “a contingency operations is designed by the Secretary of Defense in which member of the armed forces are or may become involved in military actions, operations, or hostilities against an enemy of the United States or against an opposing military force; or results in the call or order to, or retention on, active duty of members of the uniformed services under Chapter 15 of Title 10 of the United States Code, or any other provision of law during a war or during a national emergency declared by the President or Congress” (p. 1).

There are numerous types of contingencies situations to include: humanitarian or peacekeeping operations, defense or recover from certain attacks and emergency declarations or major disaster declarations. According to DPAP (2015), “Contingency Contracting Officers (CCO) might support several types of military operations, including major operations, smaller-scale contingencies, noncombat contingency operations, and domestic disasters or emergency relief operations” (p. 57). Domestic disaster and emergency relief consists of instances that happen within the United States. Instances can include natural or human made such as: hurricanes, floods, and riots. Contingency contracting can also support humanitarian or peacekeeping operations. According to DPAP (2015), “humanitarian or peacekeeping, defined as military operations in support of the provision of humanitarian or foreign disaster assistance or in support of a peacekeeping operation under Chapter VI or VII of the Charter of the United Nations” (p. 57).

The Contingency Business Environment (CBE) aids in the contingency planning. According to “Department of Defense Contingency Business Environment Guidebook” (2014), “The CBE involves specific tools, policies, roles and responsibilities, and processes necessary to streamline delivery of goods and services to the end user during contingency operations and implement an e-business program to deliver an end-to-end electronic acquisition process to quickly obtain goods and services for the warfighter in an operational area” (p. 9). In addition, six tools are utilized to provide personnel involved with unique capabilities that have developed over year of practices and field experience. The six tools include: The 3in1 Tool automates key processes, Global Automated Tracking and Reporting System, The Contingency Acquisition Support Model, Dollars & Sense, The Joint Contingency Contracting System, and Theater Business Clearance.

CCOs utilize operational contract support (OCS) to support mission objectives. According to “Defense Contingency Contracting Handbook” (2015), “OCS is the overarching process that plans for and obtains supplies, services, and construction in support of combatant commander (CCDR)- directed operations through the related contract support integration, contracting support, and contractor management functions” (p. 22).

Discussion: Explaining Types of Contingencies

Discussion: Explaining Types of Contingencies


DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINGENCY BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT GUIDEBOOK . (2014, September). Retrieved June 8, 2020, from https://www.acq.osd.mil/dpap/policy/policyvault/US…

DPAP. (2015). Defense Contingency Contracting Handbook. Retrieved from https://www.acq.osd.mil/dpap/ccap/cc/jcchb/Final%2…

STUDENT 3 (Chris):

Contingency operations have a myriad of names and can be inside the United States (Conus) or outside (Oconus). Contingency operations can include but are not limited to; natural disasters, enemy attacks, major accidents, weapons of mass destruction, humanitarian and peacekeeping operations. The two current contingency operations that have been well publicized is Iraq and Afghanistan. Each contingency operation may have different lines of accounting or funding to support them. The Contingency Contracting Officer (CCO) must ensure the correct appropriation information is validated before submitting any acquisitions, due to the different rules that may be applicable to that particular funding allocation. The CCO will coordinate with the Head of Contracting Activity (HCA) and Comptroller (Finance Office) to ensure the correct appropriation is used. While the Line of Accounting (LOA) is being validated the Joint Force Commander (JFC) is figuring out the best strategy for employment of military force to meet the narrative of the contingency. To obtain multiple echelons of command the JFC will utilize the joint operation planning process (JOPP) to assist with the calculation and estimation of the unknown or not yet seen. JOPP will provide direction to the JFC, staff , CCO and commanders for the sustainment and employment of forces. Contract planning which is part of the sustainment effort, is critical to the establishment of operational contract support (OCS) within the contingency environment. So how is the OCS planned?

OCS is developed by OCS planners who provide operational estimates to the JFC for strategic placement to support critical junctures throughout the joint operation area (JOA). This planning or strategy will include advance party capabilities to locate local vendors, security elements (to protect the money) and the integration of JOPP to assist with the understanding of the mission. This does not include the steps the OCS must take before even arriving in the JOA such as; determining if contracting tools (e-business systems) can be used when dealing in a mature environment (sophisticated distribution system) compared to an immature (no infrastructure) environment. The determination of international agreements or if foreign currency will only be accept may be part of the consideration for contract planning. The CCO must conduct research to ensure he or she is prepared to assist with meeting the mission objective because as stated in the DCCH (2017)” contingencies engender contracting challenges not often seen in normal domestic business operations” (p.1)


Accuquisition Policy, D. &. (2017). Defense contingency contracting handbook. Washington, DC: Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy, Contingency Contracting

Discussion: Explaining Types of Contingencies

Discussion: Explaining Types of Contingencies

You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.

Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.

Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.

The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.


Discussion Questions (DQ)

Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.
Weekly Participation

Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.
APA Format and Writing Quality

Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.
Use of Direct Quotes

I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.
LopesWrite Policy

For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.
Late Policy

The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.

Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:
Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.

Scroll to Top