Discuss Pathophysiology of Disorders
Assignment 2: The Pathophysiology of Disorders
During the last 5 weeks, you have explored various body systems: neurological, cardiovascular, respiratory, and hematological. These four systems work together along with other body systems to complete a myriad of functions Pathophysiology of Disorders sample assignment. For this reason, when disorders occur within one body system, it can create potentially devastating effects throughout the entire body. For instance, Parkinson’s disease is a disorder of the central nervous system, yet its alterations actually affect multiple body systems from the cardiovascular system to the gastrointestinal system. In this Assignment, you examine alterations associated with disorders, as well as the impact of the alterations on multiple body systems.
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From the list below, select a disorder of interest to you:
Asthma in children
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Congestive heart failure
Hepatic disease (liver disease)
Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism
Identify alterations associated with your selected disorder. Consider the pathophysiology of the alterations. Think about how these alterations produce pathophysiological changes in at least two body systems.
Reflect on how patient factors such as genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, and behavior might impact the pathophysiology of the alterations you identified, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of your selected disorder.
Review the “Mind maps—Dementia, Endocarditis, and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)” media in the Week 2 Learning Resources. Use the examples in the media as a guide to construct a mind map for the disorder you selected. Consider the epidemiology and clinical presentation of your selected disorder.
Develop a 5- to 10-slide PowerPoint presentation that addresses the following:
Describe your selected disorder, as well as associated alterations. Explain the pathophysiology of the alterations, including changes that occur in at least two body systems Pathophysiology of Disorders sample assignment.
Explain how genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, and behavior might impact the pathophysiology of the alterations you identified, as well as diagnosis and treatment of your selected disorder.
Construct a mind map for the disorder you selected. Include the epidemiology, pathophysiology of alterations, risk factors, and clinical presentation, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of the disorder.
Please follow the rubric that will be uploaded.
References must be 5 years or less
Pathophysiology of Disorders
Pathophysiology of Disorders sample assignment
Hypertension is the elevation of blood pressure
Hypertension is diagnosed when the blood pressure is above 130/90 mm of mercury
Hypertension is primarily affects the heart and the vascular system
Hypertension is primarily composed of two elements;
increased cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance (Berkman, Kawachi, & Glymour, 2014).
Blood pressure is the pressure exerted on the walls of the blood vessels by the blood flowing through them. Therefore, the amount of the blood and the counter force by the vasculature determine the pressure.
In hypertension , reduced renal perfusion stimulates renin angiotensin system.
Angiotensin II causes vasoconstriction, increasing peripheral vascular pressure
Angiotensin II also stimulates aldosterone production Pathophysiology of Disorders sample assignment
Aldosterone increases retention of water and sodium in the kidney
The blood volume is thus, increased.
Hypertension is also caused by inappropriate neuronal control of blood pressure.
The baroreceptors on the walls of blood vessels are hyperreponsive to the blood pressure.
Vascular constriction increases the peripheral vascular resistance.
dysfunction of endothelins nitric oxide causes increased blood pressure
The RAAS increases the blood volume through renal water and sodium retention mechanisms. The neuronal mechanism causes unnecessary constriction, increasing peripheral vascular pressure. The endothelins fail to cause vasodilation. Pathophysiology of Disorders sample assignment.
In hypertension, the endothelin system dysfunctions and;
Does not produce enough nitric oxide.
Consequently, sufficient vasodilation does not occur.
Hypertension, affects several body system.
One of the systems is the renal system.
In hypertension, the renal perfusion is impaired.
Kidneys receive less oxygenation that the demand.
In addition, the amount of blood to the kidneys is reduced.
The kidneys receive less water and blood ions.
Consequently, the amount of water and ions filtered (Wenzel, Bode, Köhl, & Ehmke, 2016).
The glomerular filtration rate is dependent on the amount of blood supply to the kidneys per unit time. Reduced blood supply results into reduced glomerular filtration rate.
Body Systems cont’d
The kidney excretion is reduced, thus, reduced glomerular filtration rate.
Hypertension affects the brain.
The body shunts blood from non-vital organs to the vital organs.
The brain is a vital organ.
It receives increased blood volume.
In case of blood vessel aneurysm, the vessel, bursts; releasing blood into the brain tissue.
Hypertension increases afterload.
To compensate, the left ventricle increases the size of the wall.
The volume of the ventricle does not increase (Wenzel, Bode, Köhl, & Ehmke, 2016). Pathophysiology of Disorders sample assignment
Headache is a manifestation of hypertension. Patients suffer hemorrhagic strike as result of increased blood supply to brain through shunting and presence of aneurysms.
Left ventricular hypertrophy is as a result of increased workload on the ventricle, thus the cardiac muscles stretch under the Sterling effects and hypertrophy to handle increased workload.
Genetic mutations in certain genes are associated
Age affects hypertension; which is common among elderly with hypertension
Age affects hypertension; which is common among elderly
Hypertension is more common among the female black population.
Lack of physical exercise behavior increases risk of hypertension.
Eating habits that comprises of fats causes obesity, risk factor for hypertension
Hypertension is diagnosed with a systolic blood pressure of above 140 mm Hg and a diastolic pressure of above 89 mm Hg (Sun, 2015). Pathophysiology of Disorders sample assignment.
Genetic make up determine the protein that make up the vascular walls. Therefore the elasticity and the vascular resistance. Vascular walls loose elasticity with aging. High fat content increase te deposition of fat on walls of the vascular lumen, increasing the resistance by affected blood vessels.
The treatment of hypertension is done by use of several antihypertensive.
Calcium channel blocker reduce the effect of vasodilation.
Example is nifedipine
Beta blocker for instance; atenolol blocks the sympathetic stimulation.
Diuretics, for example furosemide increase renal water excretion.
Angiotensin converting enzyme , for example enalopril are another group of antihypertensive.
Central adrenergic receptor antagonists, for example methyldopa are antihypertensive.
Angiotensin II inhibitor, for example losartan is an antihypertensive (Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists’ Collaboration, 2014).
The treatment of hypertension relies on pharmacological effect of the drugs on the physiological mechanisms that control blood pressure. Pathophysiology of Disorders sample assignment.
In conclusion, hypertension is a common disorder.
The condition directly affects the cardiovascular. However, the pathophysiology affects multiple systems.
Hypertension is affected by several patient factors: age, genetics , gender , ethnicity and behavior.
The treatment of hypertension targets the pathways involved in pathophysiology.
The choice of treatment regime depends on severity of increased blood pressure.
Berkman, L. F., Kawachi, I., & Glymour, M. M. (Eds.). (2014). Social epidemiology. Oxford University Press.
Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists’ Collaboration. (2014). Blood pressure-lowering treatment based on cardiovascular risk: a meta-analysis of individual patient data. The Lancet, 384(9943), 591-598.
Sun, Z. (2015). Aging, arterial stiffness, and hypertension. Hypertension, 65(2), 252-256.
Wenzel, U. O., Bode, M., Köhl, J., & Ehmke, H. (2016). A pathogenic role of complement in arterial hypertension and hypertensive end organ damage. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 312(3), H349-H354.
Pathophysiology of Disorders sample assignment