Describe Endocrine System and its functions .
Endocrine System Essay
Pre-Lab Evaluation Answers.
The endocrine system produces hormones to regulate the internal environment of the body therefore keeping the parameters of the body at a relatively constant level. The hormones work by a feedback mechanism whereby if a parameter goes high or low it stimulates the production of the hormone that is responsible for regulating it back to the normal level. This is important so that the cells are at the environment at which they work best Endocrine System Essay.
Parathyroid hormone, a hormone responsible for calcium regulation, is produced by the parathyroid glands. They are two glands and are located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid glands. Secretion of parathyroid hormone is inversely related to serum calcium level. The direct action of parathyroid hormone is on bone and kidneys. It causes release of calcium from the bone and reabsorption in the kidneys thereby raising the level of calcium in blood (Lok, U, 2014).
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On the anterior aspect, the chief cells of the thyroid glands produce calcitonin. Calcitonin is antagonistic to parathyroid hormone and functions to reduce the amount of calcium in blood.
The two hormones secreted by the thyroid gland are T3 and T4, they are important in regulating the metabolism of the body. A high level of T3 and T4 results in high metabolism. The difference between them is that T3 has three molecules while T4 has four. T3 is the more active one. They require iodine in their structure (Mullur, R, 2014).
Corticosteroids are a group of drugs/hormones that resemble in structure the hormones that are produced by the cortex of the adrenal gland. An example is prednisone. They are mostly used to treat autoimmune inflammatory diseases. Their effects include hyperglycemia and weight gain; they also depress the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis Endocrine System Essay.
Adequate blood sugar levels are essential so that cells can be able to take in the sugar to perform their metabolic functions. Insulin is the hormone that is responsible for transporting glucose into the cells. Normal blood sugar levels in humans are 3.9-5.4 mmols/l for fasting blood sugar and 5.5-7.0 mmols/l for random blood sugar. The pancreas produces insulin to reduce the blood sugar when it is high, while the liver stores glycogen, which is converted into glucose to raise the blood when it is low (Hill,N, 2011).
Post-Lab Evaluation Answers
The significance of the HbA1c test is to determine whether blood sugar control has been adequate over the past 3 months. In Mr Joe’s case it has been poor. The diagnosis is poorly controlled diabetes mellitus Endocrine System Essay.
If Joe were honest he most likely responded by saying that he has not been watching his diet. I would explain to Joe that Diabetes is a chronic disease that results from either inadequate or lack of insulin and that it is not cured by medication but is instead controlled by a lifetime of oral or injectable drugs that are essential to control his blood sugar.
I would explain to Joe that there are different methods of controlling his blood sugar. I would start by advising him to pursue a change in diet and lose some weight and also advice him that he does not have to be on insulin shots if his blood sugar control is adequately controlled by oral medication.
In the short term Joe could go into diabetic ketoacidosis, a hyperosmolar state or hypoglycemic coma. In the long term Joe could have vision loss, heart disease, kidney disease, peripheral neuropathy and leg ulcers.
I would advice Joe to talk to his son about diet modification and weight loss. And also for him to do follow the same advice. Endocrine System Essay.
Lok, U., Hatipoglu, S., Gulacti, U., Arpaci, A., Aktas, N., & Borta, T. (2014). The Role of Thyroid and Parathyroid Metabolism Disorders in the Etiology of Sudden Onset Dizziness. Medical Science Monitor : International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research, 20, 2689–2694. http://doi.org/10.12659/MSM.891305
Mullur, R., Liu, Y.-Y., & Brent, G. A. (2014). Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Metabolism. Physiological Reviews, 94(2), 355–382. http://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00030.2013
Hill, N. R., Oliver, N. S., Choudhary, P., Levy, J. C., Hindmarsh, P., & Matthews, D. R. (2011). Normal Reference Range for Mean Tissue Glucose and Glycemic Variability Derived from Continuous Glucose Monitoring for Subjects Without Diabetes in Different Ethnic Groups. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, 13(9), 921–928. http://doi.org/10.1089/dia.2010.0247 Endocrine System Essay