CASE STUDY: BREAST CANCER DISEASE
Running head: BREAST CANCER DISEASE NURS 6051: Transforming Nursing and Healthcare through Technology Developing a Health Information Patient Handout Dr. Mary Rodgers Walden University Stanley Okeyemi Week 11 Assignment February 12th, 2017 1 PREVENTION OF BREAST CANCER AMONG WOMEN 2 With the range of diseases that exist in our society today, breast cancer likely remains one of the most popular diseases known by many, even around the world. The National Breast Cancer Foundation states that “1 in 8 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in her lifetime. There is currently no known cure for breast cancer, and its early diagnosis is critical to survival. Breast cancer can commonly be diagnosed in clinical settings through Mammogram, Ultrasound, MRI, Biopsy, and some additional lab tests.” The intensity of mortality by this disease was further elaborated on that “each year in the United States, about 220,000 cases of breast cancer are diagnosed in women, and about 40,000 women die from it yearly. Breast cancer is not only limited to women. About 2,000 men are diagnosed yearly in the U.S, with 400 men dying from it” (CDC, 2016). With the alarming rate of this occurrence, a further look into the work of Reeder-Hayes, Wheeler, and Mayer (2015) shows that “even though African American women now receive screening mammography at least as often as white women, there remains a persistent problem of health disparities in breast cancer care and outcomes. Mortality rates remain higher among AfricanAmerican women, despite the fact that breast cancer incidence is higher in white women. Such data suggest that racial differences in biology, receipt of appropriate and timely treatment and follow-up care, and other non–cancer-related conditions may account for differences in all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality.” These analyses reveal that the burden of breast cancer is not shared equally among all women. “Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women worldwide. In some regions, including Europe and Australia, it is the most common cause of death from cancer in women. Mortality rates have started to decline in some regions not only because of improvements in early detection and treatment but also because of improvements in the delivery of care” (Bertero & Wilmoth, 2007 pp 194). To allow a continuation of the declining rate of this disease, much public awareness and its early detection is PREVENTION OF BREAST CANCER AMONG WOMEN 3 crucial to the predisposed population. Individuals, dedicated organizations, and health care professionals can help impose continuous education, awareness about lifestyle practices, and routine check-up, as part of the essential steps needed by these predisposed individuals in containing this life-threatening disease. The advertisement of a pink ribbon being displayed by some individuals, companies, and televised especially in the month of October each year has been a universal symbol of raising awareness to the society about the existence of this disease and how people can seek treatment option. The purpose of this handout is to promote health literacy by designing an educational material that attracts and educate the society about breast cancer disease, thus, identifying, promoting and creating an awareness about the risk factors for breast cancer, prevention of breast cancer, signs and symptoms of breast cancer, screening and treatment options open to positively improve or contain this problem for the women of age predisposed to this disease in our society.
CASE STUDY: BREAST CANCER DISEASE
CASE STUDY: BREAST CANCER DISEASE
CASE STUDY: BREAST CANCER DISEASE
The article by Odle (2016, pp 535M) states that research has shown that patients typically do not receive balanced information about benefits and harms of screening, nor are they asked to participate in the decision to be screened. Setting out awareness to
ORDER NOW FOR AN ORIGINAL PAPER:CASE STUDY: BREAST CANCER DISEASE
combat breast cancer should be aggressive and empowering to these susceptible individuals subjected to take control of their health due to the shattering nature of this disease that potentially seizes life without remorse. Risk Factors and Prevention of Breast Cancer There are certain risk factors associated with the cause of breast cancer. There can be divided into two categories, which includes the Genetic Factors also known as risk factors that cannot be changed, and the Environmental and Lifestyle Risk Factors, also known as avoidable risk factors (national breast cancer foundation). PREVENTION OF BREAST CANCER AMONG WOMEN 4 http://www.nationalbreastcancer.org/breast-cancer-risk-factors Genetic Factors (Risk factors that cannot be changed): • Age: Two out of three women with invasive cancer are diagnosed after age 55 • Race: Breast cancer is diagnosed more often in Caucasian women than women of other races. • Family History and Genetic Factors: If your mother, sister, father or child has been diagnosed with breast or ovarian cancer, you have a higher risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer in the future. • Personal Health History: If you have been diagnosed with breast cancer in one breast, you have an increased risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer in the other breast in the future • Menstrual and Reproductive History: Early menstruation (before age 12), late menopause (after 55), having your first child at an older age, or never having given birth can also increase your risk for breast cancer. PREVENTION OF BREAST CANCER AMONG WOMEN 5 Environmental and Lifestyle Risk Factors (Avoidable risk factors): • Lack of Physical Activity: A sedentary lifestyle with little physical activity can increase your risk for breast cancer. • Poor Diet: A diet high in saturated fat and lack of fruits and vegetables can increase your risk for breast cancer. • Being Overweight or Obese: Being overweight or obese can increase your risk for breast cancer. Your risk is increased if you have already gone through menopause. • Drinking Alcohol: Frequent consumption of alcohol can increase your risk for breast cancer. The more alcohol you consume, the greater the risk. • Radiation to the Chest: Having radiation therapy to the chest before the age of 30 can increase your risk for breast cancer. • Combined Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT): Taking combined hormone replacement therapy, as prescribed for menopause, can increase your risk of breast cancer and increases the risk that cancer will be detected at a more advanced stage. Signs and Symptoms of Breast Cancer Knowing how your breasts normally look and feel is an important part of breast health. According to the American Cancer Society, the most common symptom of breast cancer is a new lump or mass. A painless, hard mass that has irregular edges is more likely to be cancer, but breast cancers can be tender, soft, or rounded. They can even be painful. For this reason, it is important to have any new breast mass or lump or breast change checked by a health care provider experienced in diagnosing breast diseases. PREVENTION OF BREAST CANCER AMONG WOMEN Other possible symptoms of breast cancer include: • Swelling of all or part of a breast (even if no distinct lump is felt) • Skin irritation or dimpling • Breast or nipple pain • Nipple retraction (turning inward) • Redness, scaliness, or thickening of the nipple or breast skin • Nipple discharge (other than breast milk) Screening for Breast Cancer 6 PREVENTION OF BREAST CANCER AMONG WOMEN 7 Clinical Breast Exam (CBE): A CBE is a self-exam where one feels the breast for any abnormalities in the form of lumps or small nodules. This may be done at home at the patient’s convenience. But it is important to learn how it is done properly from your provider before proceeding. Mammogram: A mammogram is an x-ray that allows a qualified specialist to examine the breast tissue for any suspicious areas. In a diagnostic mammogram, more x-rays are taken, providing views of the breast from multiple vantage points. Ultrasound: A breast ultrasound is a scan that uses penetrating sound waves that do not affect or damage the tissue and cannot be heard by humans. Ultrasound takes detailed pictures of the breast tissue called sonograms. MRI: During a breast MRI, a magnet connected to a computer transmits magnetic energy and radio waves (not radiation) through the breast tissue. It scans the tissue, making detailed pictures of areas within the breast. PREVENTION OF BREAST CANCER AMONG WOMEN 8 Biopsy: A breast biopsy is a test that removes tissue or sometimes fluid from the suspicious area. The removed cells are examined under a microscope and further tested to check for the presence of breast cancer. Lab Tests: If you are diagnosed with breast cancer, your doctor may order additional lab tests to assist with prognosis. There is a better prognosis if breast cancer is detected in the earlier stage. Therefore, it is imperative for routine screening to be performed by all women starting at the age of 40 annually or every two years. Women with a higher risk of this disease might be recommended by the physician earlier and more frequent mammograms. Treatment Options and Resources for Breast Cancer Hormone Therapy: This is done by administering hormonal medications which work by either lowering the amount of the hormone estrogen in the body or by blocking the action of estrogen on breast cancer cells. PREVENTION OF BREAST CANCER AMONG WOMEN Radiation Therapy: This is a highly targeted and highly effective way to destroy cancer cells in the breast that may stick around after surgery. Your radiation treatments will be overseen by a radiation oncologist, a cancer doctor who specializes in radiation therapy. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy treatment uses medicine to weaken and destroy cancer cells in the body, including cells at the original cancer site and any cancer cells that may have spread to another part of the body. Lumpectomy: This is surgery in which only the cancerous tumor and some surrounding tissue are removed. Mastectomy: This is the surgical removal of breast tissue. This could either be done as a preventative measure in high-risk patients or to rebuild breast tissue that has been attacked by the cancer cells. For more information about breast cancer, go online or call: American Cancer Society 1800-ACS-2345 or www.cancer.org The Center for Disease Control and Prevention 1800-CDC-INFO or www.cdc.gov/cancer National Cancer Institute 1800-4-CANCER or www.cancer.gov People Living with Cancer/ American Society of Clinical Oncology 1888-651-3038 or www.plwc.org 9 PREVENTION OF BREAST CANCER AMONG WOMEN References National Breast Cancer Foundation, Retrieved from http://www.nationalbreastcancer.org/breast- cancer-diagnosis The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2016). http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/breast/pdf/breastcancerfactsheet.pdf Reeder-Hayes, K. E., Wheeler, S. B., & Mayer, D. K. (2015). Health Disparities Across the Breast Cancer Continuum. Seminars In Oncology Nursing, 31(2), 170-177. doi:10.1016/j.soncn.2015.02.005 10 PREVENTION OF BREAST CANCER AMONG WOMEN Berterö, C., & Wilmoth, M. (2007). Breast cancer diagnosis and its treatment affecting the self: a meta-synthesis. Cancer Nursing, 30(3), 194-204. Odle, T. G. (2016). Breast Cancer Screening Benefits: Research and Controversies. Radiologic Technology, 87(5), 529M-548M American Cancer Society. (2016). http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/detailedguide/breastcancer National Cancer Institute (2016). http://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/hp 11 …
Purchase answer to see full attachment
Studypool values your privacy. Only questions posted as Public are visible on our website.
850 × 1202
You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.
Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.
Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.
The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.